CULTURAL DIVERSITY & NATIONAL INTEGRITY
Professor James M. Jones postulates three major types of racism:
(i) Personally mediated, (ii) internalized, and (iii) institutionalized.
Personally mediated racism includes the specific social attitudes inherent to racially prejudiced action (bigoted differential assumptions about abilities, motives, and the intentions of others according to), discrimination (the differential actions and behaviors towards others according to their race), stereotyping, commission, and omission (disrespect, suspicion, devaluation, and dehumanization).
Internalized racism is the acceptance, by members of the racially stigmatized people, of negative perceptions about their own abilities and intrinsic worth, characterized by low self-esteem, and low esteem of others like them. This racism can be manifested through embracing “whiteness” (e.g. stratification by skin colour in non-white communities), self-devaluation (e.g. racial slurs, nicknames, rejection of ancestral culture), and resignation, helplessness, and hopelessness (e.g. dropping out of school, failing to vote, engaging in health-risk practices, etc.).
Institutional racism is the existence of institutional systemic policies, practices and economic and political structures which place minority racial and ethnic groups at a disadvantage in relation to an institution’s racial or ethnic majority. Access denial to quality education, employment, high valued property neighborhoods, restrictive housing contracts, and stricter bank lending policies, racial profiling by security guards and police, use of stereotyped racial caricatures, the under- and mis-representation of certain racial groups in the mass media, and race-based barriers to gainful employment and professional advancement. The term was introduced by Black Power activists Stokely Carmichael and Charles V. Hamilton in the late 1960s.
Some pundits have managed to distinguish between institutional racism and "structural racism" (sometimes called structured racialization). The former focuses upon the norms and practices within an institution, the latter upon the interactions among institutions, interactions that produce radicalized outcomes against “non-white people”. An important feature of structural racism is that it cannot be reduced to individual prejudice or to the single function of an institution.
The Dynamic Nature of Ignorance, Trepidation, and Hypocrisy of Racism
The notion of race does not have to be problematic from a scientific or from a social point of view. The concept of race can also be viewed as a common attempt to understand the diversity of human biological foundations. However, many attempts have been made to manipulate and exploit the process of the findings as well the results by so many institutions whose interest is to preserve and promote racist agenda. No one could tell exactly the cause of racism, whether it was narcissism, nordicism, völkism, eugenicist and Social Darwinist ideas, cognitive dissonance, anxiety of racial survival -- or if in fact racism was the cause of slavery or colonization, but it is certain that racism became the evil legacy of colonialism and slavery.
It is difficult for people who are not familiar with the history of racism or people who are not feeling the chokehold of racism in their lives to understand racism. Racism is a belief system that a particular race is superior to others and that another particular race is inferior to others, and that to ensure survival of the fittest, the superior race must become and remain dominant by any means necessary. Racism has to be systemic on a large scale and institutionalized for it to exist within a society as a cultural norm. This means that racism is powerful and deeply embedded in the institutions of American life. The only way racism is able to persist and subsist so far in human civilization is because of its insidiousness in our sociocultural and political economic paradigm.
To put things in properly in perspective, I generally avoid using colors such as black or white to describe peoples, because I know that color coding distorts the true understanding of the matter and has been one of the root causes of racial problems today. 'Black' and 'White' as we have it up till now is an interpretation of the reflection of oneself in others. Many people, including notable scholars will argue the preference of 'Black' and 'White' as proper term of reference or valid existence of racial modality. These nomenclatures are easy to learn and perpetuate, but the wake of horror they leave behind is eternal. Many Africans have become complacent and assumed the belief of being black and many Europeans have equally assumed to be white. These beliefs are false. We have simply learned to identify ourselves based on our differences, not on who we actually are. And what about the product of the two disparities, such as mixture of both?
Principle of Difference or Disagreement or of Discrepancy says two things, one of which disagrees with a third thing, and the other of which disagrees with the same third thing disagrees with each other. This may be why we are still divided. By using proper terms we can begin to humanize ourselves again. White and black relationship reiterates the master slave relationship implicitly whether not the one is aware. While nationality matters significantly, the issue of racism has to be addressed at the secondary level of human identity, after all it is all about empathy and the inclusion in all the benefits that is available to all human beings in their various culturally diverse states at the primary level of the biological foundation of human identity. The only one true narrative of identity for the People of African Descent Worldwide” is African, not black; and that of European descent is European, not white. The identity of race is constant as truth itself, which does not change. People of mixed heritages are either biracial or multiracial, not Mulato (which is a derogative word for cross bred between a horse and a mule). We must first remove the ignorance, fear, and hypocrisy that holds the edifice of racism in place. In order to embark upon rapprochement and ultimately cultural harmony and political congruence. Even if we have ideological differences, as long as our differences are not based on trivial or obtuse principle serving as excuse to bully or jeopardize human dignity. We should be safe.
Recommendation for Ending Racism, Avoiding Racial Conflicts, & the Upliftment of People of African Descent
Recommendation for Ending Racism, Avoiding Racial Conflicts, & the Upliftment of People of African Descent
"We the People" consisting of high-level traditional rulers, spiritual leaders, diplomats, scholars from interdisciplinary faculties and professions, and various cultural backgrounds, discussed the ongoing issue of racism and racial conflicts during this year's Spirit of Peace & Prosperity Summit. The event took place via Zoom from 10:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. from July 17 to July 21, 2020. We confirmed that racism continues to be the primary impediment of the livelihood, health, confidence, and performance expectations of Black people worldwide.
First, the People remain grateful for the U.S. Department of Justice Community Relations Service for its intervention published under the title "Avoiding Racial Conflict: A Guide for Municipalities." Such a response demonstrates the expected leadership that affirms the United States' position as a true leader of the Free World.
We, the People, offer some recommendations for your consideration in resolving the crisis in addition to your effort. Please see the advice on the following pages. We ask to please view these following recommendations through an objective lens as our contribution to the "Eradication of Cultural and Structural Racism & Abolition of Systemic and Institutional Racial Injustices."
REVISIT THE KERNER'S REPORT
• Let us revisit and revise the Kerner's Commission Recommendations to meet extraordinary challenges. The Kerner Report can also help undertake new initiatives and experiments that can change the system of failure and frustration that now dominates, weakens, and divides the nation. This undertaking should be a bipartisan effort.
The following areas of intensities are still relevant today
First Level of Intensity
1. Police practices
2. Inadequate housing
3. Unemployment and underemployment
Second Level of Intensity
4. Inadequate education
5. Poor recreation facilities and programs
6. Ineffectiveness of the political structure and grievance mechanisms
Third Level of Intensity
7. Disrespectful white attitudes
8. Discriminatory administration of justice
9. Inadequacy of federal programs
10. Inadequacy of municipal services
11. Discriminatory consumer and credit practices
12. Inadequate welfare programs
MEMORIALIZATION OF VICTIMS:
• In the context of transitional justice, memorialization can help towards honoring and mitigating the pains of victims of human rights abuses. Memorials can help governments reconcile tensions with victims by demonstrating respect and acknowledging the past. They can also help to establish and maintain a record of history and to prevent the recurrence of abuse.
• Monuments and museums such as the National Memorial for Peace and Justice in Alabama, should be encouraged and established nationwide to acknowledge past racial terrorism and advocate for social justice throughout America.
UPDATE AND EFFECTUATE THE U.S. DEFINITION OF TERRORISM:
• The Code of Federal Regulations defines 'Terrorism' as "the unlawful use of force and violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives" (28 C.F.R. Section 0.85).
• Canada defines terrorism as an act committed "in whole or in part for a political, religious or ideological purpose, objective or causes to intimidate the public…with regard to its security, including its economic security, or compelling a person, a government or a domestic or an international organization to do or to refrain from doing any act."
• The United Kingdom defines terrorism as to the use and threat of action "designed to influence the government or to intimidate the public or a section of the public" and "made for the purpose of advancing a political, religious or ideological cause."
The current ambiguity in the definition of terrorism can be associated with the increasing rate of hate groups in the United States. Hate groups have grown exponentially by using the Internet to promote their hateful agendas and recruit members. Hate Organizations with a history of violence and combatant aggression should not have any means for legal existence or any room for public display. Organizations whose members or enthusiasts have committed a human right abuse should be declared illegal and prosecuted.
STRENGTHENING THE RULE OF LAW AND ACCOUNTABILITY FOR HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS:
• The rule of law and accountability for human rights violations are critical for the prevention of violations, conflict, and violence, along with the building and sustaining of peace and the achievement of inclusive development. The costs of lawlessness are starkly evident across the world: in failures of justice systems, impunity for crimes, conflict over unaddressed grievances, and oppressive, unaccountable rule.
• We must promote a governance system in which all leaders and administrators across institutions and entities in public or private sectors are accountable to laws.
• We must ensure that laws and policies are openly and publicly promulgated, equally enforced, independently adjudicated, and consistent with international standards.
• Corruption remains a key risk factor across systems including in judiciary and law enforcement institutions. The need for vigilance in the absolute prohibition of torture, unnecessary battery, and the use of deadly restrictions methods on civilians by law enforcement must end at once.
• We must ensure that laws, policies, and practices increasingly address, reduce, and prevent human rights violations in the context of law enforcement and justice systems.
• Strengthened national mechanisms must provide redress to victims and accountability for human rights violations, including economic and social rights abuses.
• We must encourage litigation of human rights violations by appropriate law enforcement entities and the elimination of abuses by the justice system.
• Ensure that justice systems investigate and prosecute racial and gender-related crimes more effectively, consistently, and even-handedly.
EXPAND EDUCATION CURRICULUM AND HOLD BOTH PRIVATE & PUBLIC SCHOOLS ACCOUNTABLE
• Education programs and curriculum must start before the beginning of and extend beyond the end of African Slavery. It should include teachings on racial inequalities and the various contribution made by Africans and African Americans to American society and the rest of the world.
• Expanding schools and their education curriculum standards across the board can contribute significantly to easing the existing disparities and begin bridging the socio-cultural and political-economic gaps.
• An article published on the Stanford University website said. "A high school ethnic studies course examining the roles of race, nationality, and culture on identity and experience boosted attendance and academic performance of students at risk of dropping out."
• Courses should include African American experiences and contributions as well as African civilizations such as the Kingdoms of Kush, Kongo, Punt, Carthage, Ghana, Asante, Zulu, Yoruba, Berber, Mutapa, and Zimbabwe; and The Mali, Songhai, Benin, Ethiopian, Aksumite, and Egyptian Empires. Native American studies should include teaching the history and culture of the Navajo, Cherokee, Sioux, Chippewa, Choctaw, Apache, Pueblo, Iroquois, Creek, Blackfeet, along with contributions made by many other indigenous American tribes.
• This effort will help to alleviate the "identity crisis" and the mental health issues that so many people in the African American and Native American communities are facing.
• Many immigrants from all backgrounds bring their racial biases, which often contributes to and rehash the problem of racism in the U.S. The U.S. naturalization test should include contributions and sacrifices made by African Americans and Indigenous American people.
• Programs that can reduce the cost of college education, dropout rate, and encourage in the pursuit of higher learning will be a good investment for the African American communities.
INCLUSIVE AND TARGETTED ECONOMIC ADVANCEMENT:
• The U.S. economy should be one in which everyone who wants to work can find a job. This goal has been elusive for the majority of African Americans in many parts of the country. The majority of African-Americans are still struggling with poverty and unfortunate economic circumstances in the United States, for a variety of reasons, but racism remains the main culprit. The situation today, exacerbated by law enforcement and racial injustices, erodes the confidence of people of African descent in engaging their pursuits. This is profoundly troubling. The outcry of protesters on the street is the proof. To solve this problem once and for all:
• The federal government should support three separate programs for increasing employment in these high-unemployment areas. These are direct public sector employment, job training with job placement, and tax subsidies for employers who hire unemployed African American workers. Together these policies should significantly increase opportunities for African Americans to achieve American values.
• The federal government should provide more funds to local governments for job creation aimed at improving the quality of life in the community. The creation and maintenance of jobs paying a living wage would improve the quality of life of existing residents and make the community more desirable to middle-class families.
• New policies and investigative departments should be put in place to create a greater focus on improving access to homeownership by lowering the cost and eliminating discriminatory practices.
• Job training and job placement: Improving the skills of black workers is useful, but it is not always enough to lead to employment. Qualified organizations, academic institutions, and vocational schools should be encouraged to assist in job placement.
• Freedom Dividend, a universal basic income (U.B.I.): The first to develop the idea of social insurance was Marquis de Condorcet (1743–1794). After playing a prominent role in the French Revolution, he was imprisoned and sentenced to death. Marquis wrote the Esquisse d' un Tableau Historique des progrès de l'esprit humain ("Sketch for a Historical Picture of the Progress of the Human Mind"; published posthumously by his widow in 1795), the last chapter of which describes his vision of social insurance and how it could reduce inequality, insecurity, and poverty.
• Improve access to banking: a significant percentage of African Americans do not have bank accounts, making them more reliant on and vulnerable to predatory lending. Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFIs) such as banks, credit unions, and other local financial institutions that support small businesses and affordable housing must be financed, encouraged, and commissioned to provide financial relief to distressed individuals, families, urban and rural communities. They must be controlled and highly regulated to be representative of the communities they serve and be equipped to provide loans to support efforts such as opening local businesses and financing for affordable housing, among other initiatives. Greater access to affordable banking alternatives would help address the need that payday lenders, for example, currently serve. Better protections for prepaid cards and regulation of payday loans should ensure that companies compete to offer the best product—not on gouging consumers. Gouging must be punitive. Finally, consumers need access to safe, affordable financial products and services that build trust with customers who may be disconnected from the financial mainstream.
• Protect the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau: The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) was established in the wake of the 2007-08 financial crisis with a mission to protect consumers from fraud, discrimination, and abuse in the financial marketplace. Considering the disparate treatment blacks have received in the financial marketplace for decades, this agency is critical to protecting them from wealth-stripping products and policies. The agency has targeted discriminatory lending in the auto loan, home loan, and credit card industries. Since its inception in 2011, the CFPB has returned nearly $12 billion to 29 million victims of financial wrongdoing, including more than $450 million to about 1 million fair lending abuse victims. The CFPB has also proposed collecting data to identify disparities in small business lending for entrepreneurs of color. This protective effort should expand.
• Penal labor is constitutional as punishment but not as a profit mechanism and access to cheap labor for corporations and the prison industrial complex. This activity is unjust and intolerable. It must be abolished.
• Diversity and inclusion should be a priority in all facets of Federal, State, County/Parish, and City contracting.
• Support and protect positive, intentional policy changes for fair housing: The rule requires any community receiving housing block grants from the Department of Housing and Urban Development (H.U.D.) to decrease residential segregation, eradicate racially or ethnically concentrated areas of poverty, reduce unequal access to community resources, and narrow gaps that result in disproportionate housing needs among vulnerable communities. While this is good, it may not be used to promote gentrification.
Institute a comprehensive set of rules to govern land installment contracts to ensure that unscrupulous sellers do not once again defraud black borrowers. The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau must provide a set of clear and measurable guidelines for states to protect borrowers. Such rules should include the right to cure in situations of default, the recording of land contracts; the requirement for an independent appraisal; no liens on a property before entering into a purchase contract; and the establishment of an interest cap.
A bill passed in Portugal's parliament sets out a legal basis for housing being treated as a citizens' right. Under the new law, the Portuguese government becomes responsible for ensuring adequate housing for all citizens as "the guarantor of the right to housing." The United States should have been the first to implement this initiative. Let us not be the last.
African Views Organization
Nation Building Slides
Racism and Racial Conflict Slides
Most people don’t know what Racism is because of lack of knowledge of History and the confusion in the media have no clue what Racism is. Racism is a system of Advantage and Privilege distributed based upon "Race". This video compilation is designed to explain from a historical perspective what Racism is and how it differs from Bigotry, Prejudice and Discrimination. Those are 4 different things. African Americans as a group of people cannot be Racists but can be Bigots, hold prejudice and discrimination accountable. Be part of the solution.
Sustainable Solutions to African Problems (Theory and Practical)